Norris CM, Hegadoren K, Patterson L, Pilote L. Sex differences in prodromal symptoms of patients with acute coronary syndrome: a pilot study. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs 2008;28(1):27-31.
Increasing evidence suggests that there are sex/gender differences in the presentation and prodromal symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this pilot study was to identify sex differences in the prodromal symptoms of ACS using the McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey (MAPMISS). Telephone surveys using the MAPMISS were conducted between 4 and 6 months after the ACS event. Seventy-six patients (24 women) participated in the study. The women generally reported higher prodromal scores. Moreover, scores demonstrated differences in prodromal symptoms based on menopausal status. The premenopausal and perimenopausal women reported a greater number and higher frequency of symptoms compared with the men and menopausal women. The results of this study suggest that both men and women report nontraditional prodromal symptoms of ACS. In addition, there appears to be a difference in the frequency and number of symptoms reported based on menopausal status.