Ezekowitz J, McAlister FA, Humphries KH, Norris CM, Tonelli M, Ghali WA, Knudtson ML, for the APPROACH Investigators. The association between renal insufficiency, pharmacotherapy, and outcomes in 6,437 patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2004 Oct19;44:1587-92.
Objectives: This study was designed to examine the use of cardiovascular medications and outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) and renal dysfunction.
Background: Renal insufficiency is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with HF, but the mechanisms are uncertain. In particular, the degree of therapeutic nihilism in these patients, and whether it is appropriate, is unclear.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study with a one-year follow-up.
Results: In 6,427 patients with cardiologist-diagnosed HF and angiographically proven coronary artery disease (mean age 69 years; 65% men; one-year mortality, 10%), 39% had creatinine clearances <60 ml/min. Patients with renal insufficiency were less likely to be prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, statins, or aspirin (all p < 0.001). However, users of aspirin (odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 0.85), statins (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.97), and beta-blockers (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.90) were less likely to die in the subsequent 12 months than nonusers, irrespective of renal function (all OR adjusted for covariates including atherosclerotic burden and ejection fraction). Although ACE inhibitor users with creatinine clearances _60 ml/min had lower 12-month mortality (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99), ACE inhibitor users with clearances >=60 ml/min did not (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.51).
Conclusions: Renal insufficiency is common in patients with HF and coronary artery disease, and these patients have more advanced coronary atherosclerosis. Patients with renal insufficiency are less likely to be prescribed efficacious therapies, but have better outcomes if they receive these medications.